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Page Object Model (POM) is best known for modeling the UI objects of page within test codes was discussed a lot more detail as article as well as in video in our blog as shown below In this article we will discuss how to work with Page Object Model in Selenium with C# also we will discuss about some of the minor changes in Selenium with C# and Java

Minor Changes in Selenium C#

POM of Java works even without specifying the @FindBy attribute, since by default Java POM picks the WebElements by their ID or Name specified as the name of the property in POM class In C# POM the option is not available and it throws NOSUCHELEMENTEXCEPTION
POM in Java first identifies the element with ID and if it fails, then it try to identify the control using its Name C# it identifies element only with ID but not with Name
  Here is the complete video of the above discussion Here is the snippet of code from the above video EAPageObject
class EAPageObject
        public EAPageObject()
            PageFactory.InitElements(PropertiesCollection.driver, this);

        [FindsBy(How = How.Id, Using = "TitleId")]
        public IWebElement ddlTitleID { get; set; }

        [FindsBy(How = How.Name, Using = "Initial")]
        public IWebElement txtInitial { get; set; }

        [FindsBy(How = How.Name, Using = "FirstName")]
        public IWebElement txtFirstName { get; set; }

        [FindsBy(How = How.Name, Using = "Save")]
        public IWebElement btnSave { get; set; }
Thanks for watching the video and reading the post!! Please leave your comments and let me know if there is anything need to be improved in the post!!! Thanks, Karthik KK

Post Author: Karthik kk

43 Replies to “POM in Selenium C#”

  1. Hello,
    I attempted to follow your teaching in video 8 POM. I’m getting an error when I write the FindsBy attribute on the How key word – the error is “LaunchQuest.FindsByAttribute does not contain a definition for How”

    This is the code.
    using OpenQA.Selenium;
    using System;
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    using System.Linq;
    using System.Text;
    using System.Threading.Tasks;
    using OpenQA.Selenium.Support.PageObjects;

    namespace LaunchQuest
    class PersonPageObjects
    [FindsBy(How = How.Id,using=”a.mainNav-person”)]
    public IWebElement ClickPerson { get; set; }

  2. Hi Karthik,
    Although the title says POM in C#. The video is giving the tutorial in Java.
    Can you please check?

    1. Hi Ankita,

      You are correct, the videos
      Page Object Model in Selenium — Part 1
      Page Object Model in Selenium — Part 2

      Are in Java, but the core video is still in C#, since the Part 1 and Part 2 gives a detail theoretical explanation as well !!!

      Karthik KK

      1. Hi Karthik,

        Seems the Part-1 and Part-2 videos mentioned above are exactly the same. Please let me know if I understood it wrong.

        All the videos are of great use though.


  3. Hi Karthik,

    I am new to selenium your videos are very helpful, Can you please explain about implicit and explicit waits and when they can be used safely?


  4. Hi Karthik,
    These all videos are of great use to people who want to learn Selenium.
    Thanks for these videos. Can you also suggest some dummy sites, where we can practice selenium with some more web elements available.

    1. There is one right here, not sure if the controls are enough for your practice !!!

  5. How to handle explicit wait in POM (If we use Page factory). In the Expected conditions class there is no method for webelement. All methods support (By by). So if we take webelement then how to handle this.

  6. Hi Karthik,

    I am trying to implement POM in my Selenium c# Nunit framework. Just wanted to ask if it is a good idea to save the ‘Using’ values in an excel sheet and read it from there?
    @FindBy(, Using=”abc”);
    Instead of the above statement, can we store the”abc” in an excel sheet and populate it from there? is it a good practice?

    1. HI Jigna,

      Its not a good practice to bring property name from excel sheet, but the best way is to keep them in Java file, since anyways any change has to be modified either in excel or java file, so its better keep them in java file.

      Karthik KK

      1. I dint quite understand this. did you mean c# files or java doc commented file. My environment is selenium in C#

        1. Oops, since you have mentioned @FindBy(, Using=”abc”); I thought you are looking for solution in Java, since in C# there is no @FindBy its only [FindsBy(How = How.Id, Using='abc')]

          Once again, maintaining the identification property in C# file is best practice and recommended.

          Karthik KK

  7. Hi Karthik,

    i have created POM code and initialized using Pagefactory class. while executing code i’m getting an exception
    An exception of type ‘System.ArgumentException’ occurred in WebDriver.Support.dll but was not handled in user code

    Additional information: Type of member ‘SelectElement’ is not IWebElement or IList

    public POMTest()
    PageFactory.InitElements(PropertiesCollection.driver, this);

    [FindsBy(How=How.XPath, Using = “//*[text()=’REGISTER’]”)]
    public IWebElement RegisterLink { get; set; }

    [FindsBy(How = How.Name, Using = “firstName”)]
    public IWebElement FirstName { get; set; }

    [FindsBy(How = How.Name, Using = “country”)]
    public SelectElement Country { get; set; }

  8. With page factore:
    [FindsBy(How = How.Name, Using = “firstName”)]
    public IWebElement FirstName { get; set; }

    How to use explicit wait:
    ?? = expects ‘By’ but we are defining it as ‘IWebelement’

  9. Hi Karthik,
    How to handle explicit wait in POM (If we use Page factory). In the Expected conditions class there is no method for webelement. All methods support (By by). So if we take webelement then how to handle this.
    I am not able to find any solution for that.
    Still i tried below below two lines of code in the method but i am not able to run testcases.
    Here is code which i tried,
    public static void waitUntillElementIsVisible(this IWebElement element)
    driver = ((IWrapsDriver)element).WrappedDriver;
    //code 1
    1. new WebDriverWait(driver, TimeSpan.FromSeconds(new Constant().normalwait)).Until((driver) => element.Displayed);
    //code 2
    2. new WebDriverWait(driver, TimeSpan.FromSeconds(10)).Until(ExpectedConditions.ElementExists(((By)element)));


  10. Hey karthik ,

    i am looking to log the selenium testcases in C#. Can you please suggest the best way to do so?


  11. Hi Karthik can u please help me with following error message with pageobject
    Message: System.ArgumentException : The SearchContext of the locator object cannot be null
    Parameter name: locator

  12. Hi, Thank you for the videos, they are really helpful.
    I am trying to implement POM in my project and followed every step till Video 7 . Once I created Page factory and tried to run I am getting the below error, please help.

    Result Message: System.TypeLoadException : Method ‘GetProperty’ in type ‘OpenQA.Selenium.Support.PageObjects.WebElementProxy’ from assembly ‘WebDriver.Support, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=null’ does not have an implementation.

  13. Hi Karthik,
    I am reading that page factory is deprecated. Would you still recommend learning and using the syntax? Do most shops use it still? Thanks!

  14. What is Alternative of POM in C#. How can we define and use page objects because now POM is depreciated.
    Please suggest

  15. Hi Karthik,

    I wanted to switch to your solution mentioned in this video:

    However, I experience NoSuchElementExceptions whenever an element is not found using an expression body. Normally i used my extension method to check whether an element exists, but the new method throws the error already. Do you have a recommended solution for this?

    Kind regards,

    1. Yes, this will happen for sure, this issue can be fixed by writing a custom extension method of your own for IWebElement and call the extention method in the lambda expression

      public static IWebElement FindByCss(this IWebElement driver, string element)
      if (driver.FindElementByCssSelector(element).IsElementPresent()) ;
      return driver.FindElementByCssSelector(element);
      catch (Exception e)
      return null;

      1. Thanks a lot, stupid that i didn’t think of it. Then for me there is no need to switch back to the old PageFactory model

  16. Please see kindly below:
    public IWebDriver Driver;

    public BoaRegistrationPage(IWebDriver driver)
    this.Driver = driver;
    PageFactory.InitElements(driver, this);

    [FindsBy(How = How.Id, Using = “ReportingPeriodName”)]
    public SeleniumKendoDropDownList ReportingPeriodDropDown { get; set; }

    [FindsBy(How=How.Id, Using = “Type”)]
    public SeleniumKendoDropDownList BranchType { get; set; }

    I got an error when running tests:
    Message: System.ArgumentException : Type of member ‘SeleniumKendoDropDownList’ is not IWebElement or IList

    How can I solve it? I cannot use IWebElement because I have KendoDropDownLists in the application.

    public class SeleniumKendoDropDownList : KendoDropDownList
    public SeleniumKendoDropDownList(IWebElement webElement) : base(webElement)

    public void SelectByDataItemProperty(string propertyName, string text)
    “$(‘{0}’).data(‘{1}’).select(function(dataItem) {{return dataItem.{3} === ‘{2}’;}});”,

    Thank you in advance for help 🙁

  17. Hi Karthik,
    As you know page factory feature in Selenium C# has been deprecated. I followed one your video on this topic and made changes to my Loginpage object code as follows. But this has lead to issue where Loginpage object method in program.cs file is expecting an argument. Please let me know how argument should be provided if my Loginpage object method is as follows;

    class OpenCMSloginPageObject
    private readonly RemoteWebDriver _driver;
    public OpenCMSloginPageObject(RemoteWebDriver driver) => _driver = driver;

    IWebElement txtUsername => _driver.FindElementByName(“txtUsername”);
    IWebElement txtPassword => _driver.FindElementByName(“txtPassword”);
    IWebElement btnLogin => _driver.FindElementById(“btnLogin”);

  18. Hi Karthik,

    I saw your videos. it very helpful for me to start creating my first Nunit project in Visual Studio using C#. but I need some direction about how to pass driver instance to page object class using base and hooks class. I am using Selenium 3.11 driver.


  19. Hi Karthik,

    Your blogs are v good and easy to understand. I follow you on your UTube channel as well.
    Can you please put the points here which you have explained in video .

    Thank You….

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